Bluebook citation and beyondOther sources and GATT 1947Other trade agreements
GATT and early WTO documents, 1946-1997WTO documents, 1995-present
Citing the dispute settlement reportsDocuments from dispute settlements (submissions)Finding disputes by topic, article number, etc.Selected books about dispute settlement
Citing to a U.S. sourceGovernment websites, etc.U.S. legislative history
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WTO & GATT Research   Tags: foreign & international law, international law  

This guide presents the essential sources for researching the former GATT and the current system under the Uruguay Round agreements and the World Trade Organization. NOTE: Main tabs list general sources that might not be repeated in the dropdown tabs.
Last Updated: Mar 17, 2017 URL: http://nyulaw.libguides.com/wto_gatt Print Guide RSS Updates

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Bluebook rules on treaties

To cite a multilateral convention, Rule 21.4.5(a)(ii) and Rule 21.4.5(c) of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, 18th ed., require a U.S. source, if therein, and a multilateral source, and if either of those cannot be obtained, a cite to I.L.M. or another unofficial source. The publications used in these citations are located as follows:

The Legal Texts: The Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (Cambridge, U.K.; New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, 1999)  Reserve K4603 1987 .A4 1999.

I.L.M. International Legal Materials, American Society of International Law, 1962-. Searchable via this link in HeinOnline. Be sure that the agreement you need to cite is actually reproduced in the source you are citing. See 33 I.L.M. 1141-42 for a list of the agreements reproduced in that volume.
Compact Shelves JX 27 A5 I5. Also searchable in WESTLAW (ILM), vol.19, 1980-.

U.N.T.S.  Compact Shelves JX170 .U35 PDFs are searchable in HeinOnline and in the U.N. Treaty Collection 
http://treaties.un.org/.


Bluebook, 18th ed., Rule 21.4.5(c) permits you to cite another unofficial source, including an official website such as the official WTO website.

  • Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, Apr. 15, 1994, THE LEGAL TEXTS: THE RESULTS OF THE URUGUAY ROUND OF MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS 2 (1999), 1867 U.N.T.S. 14, 33 I.L.M. 1143 (1994) [hereinafter Final Act].

  • WTO Agreement: Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Apr. 15, 1994, THE LEGAL TEXTS: THE RESULTS OF THE URUGUAY ROUND OF MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS 4 (1999), 1867 U.N.T.S. 154, 33 I.L.M. 1144 (1994) [hereinafter Marrakesh Agreement or WTO Agreement].

  • GATT 1994:General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1A, THE LEGAL TEXTS: THE RESULTS OF THE URUGUAY ROUND OF MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS 17 (1999), 1867 U.N.T.S. 187, 33 I.L.M. 1153 (1994) [hereinafter GATT 1994].

  • Agreement on Agriculture, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1A, THE LEGAL TEXTS: THE RESULTS OF THE URUGUAY ROUND OF MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS 33 (1999), 1867 U.N.T.S. 410. [Not reproduced in I.L.M.]

  • TRIMS Agreement: Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1A, THE LEGAL TEXTS: THE RESULTS OF THE URUGUAY ROUND OF MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS 143 (1999), 1868 U.N.T.S. 186 [hereinafter TRIMS Agreement]. [Not reproduced in I.L.M.]

  • Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1A, THE LEGAL TEXTS: THE RESULTS OF THE URUGUAY ROUND OF MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS 231 (1999), 1869 U.N.T.S. 14. [Not reproduced in I.L.M.]

  • GATS: General Agreement on Trade in Services, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1B, THE LEGAL TEXTS: THE RESULTS OF THE URUGUAY ROUND OF MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS 284 (1999), 1869 U.N.T.S. 183, 33 I.L.M. 1167 (1994) [hereinafter GATS].

  • TRIPS: Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Apr. 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1C, THE LEGAL TEXTS: THE RESULTS OF THE URUGUAY ROUND OF MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS 320 (1999), 1869 U.N.T.S. 299, 33 I.L.M. 1197 (1994) [hereinafter TRIPS Agreement].

  • DSU, Dispute Settlement Rules: Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 2, THE LEGAL TEXTS: THE RESULTS OF THE URUGUAY ROUND OF MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS 354 (1999), 1869 U.N.T.S. 401, 33 I.L.M. 1226 (1994) [hereinafter DSU].

  • Trade Facilitation Agreement
    Negotiations concluded December 2013.
    Protocol amending Annex 1A of the Marrakesh Agreement to add the Trade Facilitation Agreement, Nov. 27, 2014.
    Status & Member States that have accepted the Protocol
      

    Notes about which source to cite

    • Before the 18th edtion, the Bluebook cited the agreement to vol. 1 of a 34-volume set entitledUruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations: Legal Instruments Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round. The NYU Law Library does not own this set, nor do many other libraries. Instead, many libraries own a reprint of volume 1 separately published either as The Legal Texts: The Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (Cambridge, U.K.; New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, 1999), Reserve K4603 1987 .A4 1999, or as Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations: The Legal Texts (Geneva: GATT Secretariat, 1994). This is the source used in the suggested citations on this page.

    • Unlike the United Nations, there is no separate GATT or WTO treaty series. In general, the official hardcopy sources of GATT and WTO materials are the GATT BISD Basic Instruments and Selected Documents and the BISD Supplements, and now the WTO BISD, if the treaty you need to cite has been published therein.

      As of this writing, however, the Uruguay Round agreements have not been published in BISD. Instead, BISD (41st Supp., vol. I) at iv n.1 (1997, covering 1994), refers to the one-volume reprint described in the first paragraph of these notes. Similarly, the former GATT also published agreements in standalone volumes, e.g., The Texts of the Tokyo Round.

    • Because U.N.T.S. is widely available and preferred by Bluebook Rule 21.4.5 for agreements among four or more parties, it has been included in the suggested citations.

    • "Legal instruments" or "legal texts" generally refers to the agreements published along with related official declarations, understandings, etc. If you need to read or cite an interpretive note, decision, declaration, act, understanding, amendment, or other document that is not published in any of the sources discussed here, then search for it as a GATT or WTOofficial document, or on one of the Trade Topics pages on the WTO website.
        
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