Bluebook citation and beyondOther sources and GATT 1947Other trade agreements
GATT and early WTO documents, 1946-1997WTO documents, 1995-present
Citing the dispute settlement reportsDocuments from dispute settlements (submissions)Finding disputes by topic, article number, etc.Selected books about dispute settlement
Citing to a U.S. sourceGovernment websites, etc.U.S. legislative history
This is the "Citing to a U.S. source" page of the "WTO & GATT Research" guide.
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WTO & GATT Research   Tags: foreign & international law, international law  

This guide presents the essential sources for researching the former GATT and the current system under the Uruguay Round agreements and the World Trade Organization. NOTE: Main tabs list general sources that might not be repeated in the dropdown tabs.
Last Updated: Mar 17, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

Citing to a U.S. source Print Page

Official U.S. sources

Bluebook, 18th ed., Rule 21.8.4(d) and the suggested citations above do not include any U.S. treaty sources. The U.S. did not ratify the Uruguay Round agreements as treaties, but instead implemented them through legislation and administrative action. Official sources are:


    What are the T.I.A.S. and U.S.T. cites for the WTO agreements?

    Treaties in Force...on January 1, 2009,, lists the Uruguay Round Agreements but without T.I.A.S. or U.S.T. citations. To determine if citations to T.I.A.S. or U.S.T. are assigned in the future, check later editions of Treaties in Force, Treaty Actions
    the Treaty Actions page of the Department of State website, or a treaty guides such as A Guide to the United States Treaties in Force (Ed. I. Kavass, Buffalo, N.Y.: William S. Hein & Co., Inc.) under K AV numbers 4042, 4048, 4051, and 4045.


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